Eyes 1: Anatomy

25 minutes
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All right, let's do a breakdown of the structures of the eye. The glorious organs that allow photons in and allow us to see the beauty of the world around us. Let's get in here and see what's up. Let's talk a little bit about the anatomy of the eye. You can see that the eye is literally a ball and is about one inch in diameter, and it fits inside of an eye socket, or an orbit be technical about it. And that socket protects it from blows to the eye from predators enemies, the eyebrows protected from sweat the eyelashes protected from dirt, getting into into the eye onto the sclera irritating it or damaging it.

On the eyes is like a fingerprint. It has 256 characteristics As opposed to the fingerprint, which has 40 unique characteristics, and so that's why it's used in security scans to identify people, it's a lot more accurate than the fingerprint. And it's the eyes composed of 2 million working parts. That's amazing. So, di weighs up just about one ounce, at about one inch across as I mentioned. So, if we look at this, here, there is one I in between.

I from tear duct to tear deck, tear duct would be about there. Right so we have one eye in between. And then we have about one I don't get you out to the side of the head, or even to the edge of the ear. Approximately on average, so that's called right there is called the five eye line. And that's a measurement that you can use what you're familiar with Five Eyes across. That's the same distance from the tip of the head to the bottom of the nose and from the bottom of the nose, take that same measurement, you can get right down to the pit of the neck, so it's a very helpful measurement to know.

So we've got basically bone protecting the eye. We do have muscles here, here and here that control the movement of the eye inside the orbit. It also controls the blinking of the the eye lids and So one we're not going to get into those that much but we will get into some of this. This is called the lacrimal bone right here. Okay. And there's the top top of the zygomatic arch talk at the top of the site Goma, which is the bottom part of the orbit of the eye.

The top part of the orbit of the eye is the forearm and and that is the basically the, the technical name for it is the super orbital notch or super orbital for him right in here. Okay, so right in there. And the sub orbital forum is down In here, and here we have something called the glabella or the super ciliary arch, and that's in here. Very important one that we can talk about a little bit later, but I'll note it for now. Okay, so let's go to a three quarter view right here. So now you can kind of see that how this glabella overlaps the super orbital notch or the eyebrow bone, the eye socket.

So that eye brown bone fits in to the club, Ella. That clip that comes in right there. And so you can see there's the title Part of the front plane of the nose and then it steps down here and hits the LACMA and then goes in to the interior part of the eyeball and this comes out that way. So there is a kind of a, you know a plane right here. Right and then this can continue out this way and there is the nasal labial fold a lot of times you'll start to see that so it's muscle, a little bit of fat that covers over the zygomatic arch, which is underneath and covers over the muscles many more or less depending on the person. And so let's move into how we're gonna, how we would draw something like this.

Let's get a little deeper in Describing the eyeball. Okay, let's look at the shape of the eyebrow itself. Because we definitely need to know that it's really, you can look at this thing. And you can draw it like oops, copy another layer here. Okay? It's kind of like oh square, okay tilted a little bit but it runs this way.

It's at an angle. It's not horizontal like that. Okay? It's at an angle, and it's got some straights and some curves. Okay? You can also think of it as A pair of aviator sunglasses for the quick block in the quick, iconic eye.

All right, that you can go ahead and kind of block in like that just to get it spaced in place. All right from there, you can draw the rhythm of the nose. Okay? And continue on building the eye inside that. Okay, so those are the aviator sunglasses, or basically the straights and curves, but it's definitely at this angle that kind of slopes down. Okay.

Okay, two other helpful, quick ways to help you visualize the eye socket is a cup. So imagine this cup There's a sphere tucked nicely inside of it. Right? If the light is coming from top down, then we have shadow here. Right in the shadow on that eyeball. Okay, so that's one way you can think about it.

Another way to think about it is like a whistle. Okay or like some kind of cone, cone cylinder with a piece wheedled out of it. Right so it's just a nice cut out piece. You can see front plane and it steps down, goes in another direction and then becomes a top plane again and then side play. So front plane under plane, top plane inside play, and there'll be just that little eyeball sitting in there protected. Okay, so that's, you know, another way to think about the eye socket and eyeball relationship.

Moving on, let's do an eye here. So I is literally a ball. Okay. So, if our light is coming from the top right Little bit in front, okay, so use this arrow here to show light direction. Okay, then we're going to see light being cast onto the ball and then so it'll be lighter at the top right and it'll move slowly away to the left will get darker. And then we have the iris inside.

So the iris is about half the diameter of the IR itself. So I'm gonna just take a quick measurement like that. Okay and then and then let us paint And here I want to just build that up kind of slow. Okay, I'm gonna blur a little bit here. Okay, so that right there is the iris. Okay, so the iris is an amazing, amazing thing when you look at it.

So close up is so cool. Let's do that right now. Look at that. That Iris that fuzzy, hairy look and stuff is the iris and there are colors Right so there's different colors look at that, that is just otherworldly does not look like a sci fi landscape or something like that weird black hole. Right? So there's pigment pigmentation in the iris.

So eyes can be many different colors and all that pigmentation and kind of hairy stuff prevents light prevents photons from passing through there and restricts the passage of light through the pupil which is that black thing right in the middle and on top of that, there is a cornea okay. So that is light is passing through that cornea, some light is reflecting off of it and some is scattering across the surface. Okay, so Getting back to this. So we're looking at the iris right here. And now I'm going to go ahead and paint the pupil. So I'm going to grab my Marquee Tool, it's select space button to move it around, center it.

So the pupil is a black hole. It's actually a hole in the iris that allows photons to come in to the back of the retina, hit the rods and cones and reveal things to us. In the world around us, the whites stuff around the ball, the ball of the eyes called the sclera. That's the stuff here. That's the sclera okay. Shape Dynamics, Cape sclera.

Right. Iris, right here, pupil here. Okay. So you can think of This high ball as having like, kind of a dowel stuck in it coming up the other side that can help you kind of keep your orientation of the eyeball horizontally so that it doesn't start to, you know, tilt this way or tilt that way and a little bit weird. Okay, just think of it as a ball with a dowel going through it. on that surface, okay, of the cornea, which is the lens covering the iris is the highlight.

So you're gonna see the highlights the specular highlights right there. It's like this, really reflecting right back at you with the most intense the most intense way. It's the thing that's facing the light Okay, so what happens is some of that stuff reflects right back to us and some of it passes right through the cornea. And it starts to illuminate this side of the iris. So we get a little bit of kind of reflected not reflected, but it's refracted. So it's going through the cornea and refracting and lighting up this part of the iris.

Okay, and the part right next to the highlight on the cornea is darker, right, this area here it's darker, right next to the highlight. So around the highlight darker, and on the opposite side. It's a bit lighter and you see kind of a gradation here from dark to medium. Gray. Okay, that is really important. So you're going to see different things as reflections.

In here you can see I have a brush that actually is really cool that I created for retouching photography stuff and you can you can put a brush right in here. It's like this you can pop in, looks like the reflecting a flash of a bulb, maybe with a softbox. And down below that. It's kind of looks like maybe you know a reflector right here that's underneath so you get these, this dual kind of highlight. With this one being brighter, this one being a little less bright. Okay, so that's beautiful photographer photography, portrait photography and also for just painting your portraits.

Not only that, You know, you can have you might see something like, you know, a window in there, it's it's a room, right that you're, you're in. So that is just reflecting back the surroundings. And that's what's pretty, pretty cool. Right? So you might see something like that there. You can see all kinds of stuff.

You can see people you can see buildings, you could see environments, and so on. And you might have, you know, like I said, a couple different ones, because the eye ball is always wet. Okay, it's always wet. Okay, very reflective. A very amazing Oregon. Okay, so we got the eye lid Passing across the top here and then coming down right into tear duct.

Okay. And then coming this way, and you probably won't see the bottom either. You never really see the whole Iris unless it's someone's really frightened. The way it makes someone frightened is put that whole eyeball in there. You see the more whites of the eyes. Okay, so that little bone right here it looks like bone arrow, that's the top of the eyebrow.

Okay, and you'll see the top part the bottom eyelid and this kind of stuff, right? So that's how that is you'll see that there's an angle here, right? So there's really a straight line straight line. And you can get straight here and straight here. It's not an ohm and it's so equal on top and bottom like that. It's definitely not that it's more like like this kind of angle here.

Alright, so let's look at it from kind of a three quarter view. So let's take this one over here, Command T. So imagine there's that, that kind of dowel going through it. So you'd see it maybe kind of passing through here. Right, they're gonna be coming out the other side over on that far side. Okay, so imagine this doubt passing through just kind of kind of helping you keep the thing oriented. All right.

So that's somewhat what it would look like. And I would be thinking about that when I would pull my eyelid over the surface. So I'm thinking of stretching that eyelid, over the surface of the ball of the eye. Right, pulling it over, and it hasn't thickness, right. So I'm going to see the top part of that island, right. Then I'm going to see the under part of the island as it pulls around to the other side.

Okay, and then this is gonna connect in a tapered way. top part of the eyelid so See top and under plane, and then that lower lids gonna come out from the upper lid. That's going to pull around. So that's also going to have top plane. It's going to come around like that, that's gonna have a thickness so it's going to have a top plane here, side plane here or for the plane. Okay, and it's going to hit the bottom part of the eye socket.

And go on to top part of the cheek. Okay, so this is gonna be some shadow here. This is gonna be some shadow there. And we'll have some, probably some shadow here. As it turns away from the light if it's coming from the top Right, let some shadow here, right. And this is an underplaying facing away from the light.

And then we'll probably you know, have some eyebrow bone in there. Right? So that's possibly at play depending on person and then we've got a little bit of highlight there. Okay. And we'll also get a shadow on the sclera because that is a ball. Remember, it's a ball.

It's turning away from the direction of the light. So we'll just get that dark. And then soften up the edge. Right and then the top eyelid will be casting a shadow onto the eyeball as well. And so that comes into play. And that's really important.

If you get that in there, it's real good because that kind of depth to the eye and it could be those deep set moody eyes that you're looking into the soul of that person trying to read their character or connect with them. Okay, and then you have your eye lashes. And I basically draw those in groups. I don't draw like singular lashes coming up all over the place. I don't do that. I'll just draw the shape and the thickness and that's about it.

Okay, for that. And then if you're joining lid lashes. They come in pairs. Right? And so you can put little pairs on there like that. And that tends to work pretty good.

Or you can also just thicken it up like it's kind of like eyeliner. And you can group them I don't like I said, I don't go off on that too much, because it tends to look a little weird, but if I just thicken up the line, then it looks pretty good to me. Good enough. You know, you might have a couple of straight ones. Otherwise, that's pretty cool. Okay, just kind of quickly wanted to do a thing.

All of the side of the eyeball. Let's see if we can just do that real quick. Okay, so now I just wanted to draw basically from the side the idea of the cornea there so it's there will be that highlight, that's this is paint that out and put a highlight of the actual surface there. You might have, you could have you know a couple of them, right? Anyone what's out there could have a few different specular highlights, but one will suffice. And so that's the cornea there.

So we've got the cornea. Okay, that's it for anatomical analysis of the eye. Next up is charcoal drawing demo.

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