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So let's talk about camera settings and about depth of field. So in landscape photography, you want your entire image to be completely infocus. Why is that? Because you're trying to tell a story via a landscape, so you don't want anything to be out of focus, you want everything entirely in focus. So what is depth of field. So depth of field is the distance between the shortest the closest spot to you to the farthest spot to the viewer, and everything in between and how it is in focus.

So, at F eight and above, you can guarantee that your image will always be in focus. Now my rule of thumb is and I tell this to all of my students, to always shoot an F 11 above. Now, f 11 or above will guarantee that everything will always be completely in focus. Now, look at this rock, for example, this rock is 100% in focus, right? This little rock right here is 100% in focus, and that focus carries throughout the entire image all the way to this mountain range. Now that is very, very important in landscape photography, because when you start drawing the eye end, you're starting to tell the story of this landscape.

You can see through the water here how everything is in focus in that carries throughout the whole entire scene. That's why it's a landscape photograph. You want your viewer to take it all in just like you took it in when you were out there shooting it. So when you're telling a story of this beautiful scene, you want to tell the whole story, not just a little bit of a story. You can really tell the whole story by Haven't pieces of it out of focus, at least not with landscape photography, that other that method works in other kinds of photography. But in landscape photography, you want everything to be completely in focus.

Again, that guarantees that your viewer is experiencing exactly what you experienced when you were shooting this image. Now, our F stop is the only way to control that you cannot control that with the ISO or with the shutter speed. The only way to control your depth of field is with your F stop or your aperture. Like I said f eight or above is a is a good way to measure that and to guarantee that everything is in focus. Now I would never ever go below f 11. Unless I really really had to just a rule of thumb that I have that F 11 and above will guarantee a complete entire focus.

Now let's move on to the next image. So as you can see here Here I shot this at F 14. And we'll start with the closest, the closest spot to the viewer to myself. And as you can see that focus carries throughout all these layers, all these layers and all these pillars, and that focus carries throughout this, this beautiful clouds, so everything is 100% in focus. Why? Because it's shot at F 14.

Now everything else you can control with the ISO and the shutter speed, but the F stop your aperture is the only thing to control the depth of field. So when make sure you're always shooting manual and when you're shooting landscapes, you want to make sure you're always shooting at F 11 or above. Now there will be cases where you can't such as when you're shooting handheld, then it's okay to vote to lower that a little bit. But if you want to have everything in complete focus, you want to make sure you're shooting at at least f 11 or above. Let's go to our next image. So here's the same thing.

Now I wanted my main focus to be this, this feather but I wanted also the sand and focus and also my horizon and focus and also my son focus. Now this is this water blur is not out of focus this is created by a slow shutter speed, not by my f stuff this is has nothing to do with the depth of field. This I'm manipulated by having a slow shutter speed. What that creates is movement in this beautiful water and that creates the viewer invites the viewer a little more into the picture, but by Me being at F 22. I made sure that all of my sand, and that my feather, and that my, you know the waves up here, and that my son, my horizon that all of this was 100% in focus. Again, we're telling a story of this entire scene.

And by doing so I wanted and I needed all to be in focus. The only way to get all of this in focus is to be at F 11 or above. f eight is safe f 11 is guaranteed anything above f 11 is a certainty. So this I shot an F 22. Now why did I shoot this at f 22? Well, I wanted to darken my image so I could have a slower shutter speed so I could slow down this water and click create a little bit of blur.

Now, with this particular scene, I wanted to make sure that this feather was 100% in focus as this is telling most My story. So I focused my focus point was on the feather and he carry throughout the entire scene by having my depth of field. And by having my f stop at F 22. Let's move on to the next image. Here's another great example. So here I was trying to tell the story again of a beautiful landscape.

All of these are landscape, so they're telling the same story, I want everything in focus, but this is the same scenario as last time. Now I used an F 22 and I have a very slow shutter speed, my slow shutter speed, created movement in the water, my high f stop made sure that everything here was in focus, and that I created the Starburst effect on the sun. Now here's the trick, if you want to Starburst effect in any sort of light source, such as the sun or a cell light bulb, you want to be at F 18. And above f 22 is super safe and guaranteed that you will always get a starburst. No matter what kind of lens you have, no matter what kind of camera you have, if you shoot at F 22, you will always have a starburst effect on your photos. Now let's look at the depth of field here.

The depth of field my focus point was on this rock, because this is telling this is where I start to tell the story. So by having an F 22 and carrying it all the way throughout the scene, it guarantees that everything is in focus. So again, f 11 and above is guaranteed that you will always have your entire scene in focus. And that is very important for landscape photography. I can't emphasize that enough. There are other ways to create movement in the image, but by having a good depth of field and a good focus In your entire image, it guarantees that you're telling a great story, and you're including every aspect of the image in that shot.

So let's move to our next photo. So here is an FAA. Now this was f8 because I'm shooting handheld, I didn't have time to set up my tripod, but I still wanted everything in focus. And it was still it was it was dark out It was getting dark, and I was shooting with a 70 to 200. Now I have to bring up my ISO because I wanted to shoot a fast shutter speed. That way I didn't get a blurry photo.

Every time you should anything with a zoom of 200 millimeters. You're going to create a lot of handshake and a lot of shake. So you want to be anything above 151 one over 151 200th of a second. So you don't get that blurry, that shake effect. Good photos. Now by me at f8, I, my focus point was on this trees, and I guaranteed that the entire rest of the image was in focus, my wish it would have been at F 11 of above or above.

Now I didn't I couldn't get it there. So I shuddered at f8 still give me a really good depth of field, everything is still in focus and everything still looks good. Let's go to the next image. So here's the same kind of scenario. I believe this was around the same time we shot the other image, except this was shot at F 11. The scene was a little bit brighter, so I could shoot it.

I could shoot it at a higher f stop. I had also switched lenses and I was shooting at 52 millimeters. So I was able to bring down my shutter speed without getting any camera shake. So I so three still really good ISO. With my camera I can shoot up to 3000 ISO and still not really create any major, major noise on my image one 100th of a second it's really fast shutter speed doesn't I don't create any camera shake f 10 guarantees that all of these trees are 100% in focus, therefore having an amazing depth of field. Let's move on to the next one.

So here's a very very long exposure. This was shot at 81 seconds at F 22. I did not use any sort of filter. But again I wanted to create an incredible depth of field. Now this grass looks blurry simply because I have a very slow shutter speed and the wind was creating this movement on this grass. But my my my my focus point started at the beginning of the scene, and carried out all the way across the scene.

So everything is in focus. If this straw this grass wasn't moving, if there was no wind or if this would have been shuttered a fast shutter speed, this would have been 100% and focus. I wanted us very slow shutter speed. So I could create this movement in the clouds and invite the viewer in not only from down here, but from up here as well. We wanted to carry the viewer into the horizon into the treeline, too, because that's, that's our main, how we're telling the story. We're at the Everglades National Park.

There's this crazy clouds and that's what we wanted to get across. Now that's 22 guarantees that everything will be in focus. I believe my focus point was in the tree line on this one. Let's move on to the next one. So here's another image, same sort of scenario. Now this was handheld.

I spotted this fisherman from what I was standing, I took my camera off the tripod and I ran down here. As I was running, I brought my ISO to 500 because I knew I had it at a very, very slow shutter speed, but I wanted to get him in focus and get my entire scene in focus. So as you can see my sand from my sand in my water here, all the way up to the to the horizon is 100% and focus. He's 100% in focus. Now the reason this birds are not in focus is because they were moving so fast and I shot them at one 120 fifth of a second. So that creates movement, but that's what I wanted.

Movement in an image on a living form creates a story create some sort of realism in your photo. So it doesn't only create an interesting photo, but it brings life to that photograph. So by me having the F stop or the aperture at F 11 I am in focus from down here. Although, all the way to up here, carrying my focus point all the way throughout the image telling the story about my entire image is 100% in focus all my Waterson focus. Here I have this beautiful waterline as leading lines into the photo. And my my fisherman here is 100% in focus.

Now again, the ISO 500 it doesn't create any noise. The sensors on this new cameras are so amazing, that really you can shoot out high ISOs and not really worry about anything. Let's move on to the next one. So here's another great example of, of the depth of field. So here I wanted to get everything in absolute focus because the what tells the story of this place is This Canyon and the sun, basically, the whole entire scene is telling you the story. So what I wanted to do is I wanted my focus point to be here on the horizon.

But I wanted it all to be in focus, how will I be able to create that by shooting at F 22. So F 22 guaranteed that this rocks were in focus that all of this was in focus, and that everything over the sun was in focus. I also shot it at F 22. So I could get this beautiful star Starburst effect in the sun, which made this composition and storytelling a little bit more interesting and a little bit more beautiful. Now this is shot on a tripod at a very, very slow shutter speed. by shooting this at a low shutter speed.

I wanted to create a little more more movement in this clouds. The clouds were pretty stagnant, so I didn't get a lot of movement. However, I did get a Everything in focus, and I did get this beautiful Starburst effect on my son. So again, the depth of field 100% and focus from the beginning of the photo all the way to the back of the photo, you can look at it from this perspective from from the corner 100% and focus all the way to the Sun 100% and focus same from site to site 100% and focus bring it into the Sun 100% in focus. Now you could have achieved this at F 11 or above. I went with F 22 to make sure that I got the Starburst effect in this in the sun.

Smoke tour Next one. Here's another great example of everything being in focus. Now I think this is the best example of the mall because there's so much going on in this image. Now my main focal point of this image is this. This rock this is called the bonsai rock and it's in Lake Tahoe in the Nevada side. A very, very famous Photography spot.

And I've seen some amazing images of this place. And I really liked what I came up with here. Now, I wanted a kit you have to carry your focal point throughout from the beginning of the image to the back of the image. If you made any of this blurry by having a shallow depth of field, meaning a small f stop, you'd be missing out on a lot of storytelling. So here you want to carry your focus throughout just like with all the other landscapes, and that was achieved by shooting at F 18. Now, what did that achieve exactly?

Well, everything is in focus as you can see from the corner while looking through the water. While looking through the water in this photos, all these rocks below the water are 100% in focus. This closer rocks to me are 100% and focus. This rocks are 100% in focus, and that focus carries to the next rocks. The next set of rocks, the next set of rocks, and finally, my big bonds Iraq. So this is a perfect example why a landscape photograph needs to always be in focus, you want to tell that entire story of what's happening.

So I was standing here, and as you can see, I used all these rocks to draw my viewer into the main rock and into this beautiful horizon. But in order for me to tell the right story and create this beautiful image was by having everything in focus, and I achieved that by shooting at F 18. I could have done the same thing f 11, a f 12. But f 18 guarantees that everything from the closest rock to me to the furthest point is 100% in focus. Now, I was shooting on a tripod so I was able to shoot half of half of a second on this image. And I think this is a beautifully done.

I really, really enjoyed this image and I am Very, very pleased with it. So again, very good depth of field. Everything in focus f 18

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