All right, we're moving really well along the course feel fuller with your calories. And as you move along to Lesson number three, lesson number three is going to talk to you about how to choose low energy density and high city filling folks. So let us start. Before we begin into actually how to choose low energy density, and filling foods, let's understand the characteristics of filling foods. So filling foods are high in protein. And there are lots of studies that show that protein is the most filling macronutrient now you asked me what is the micronutrients macronutrients are nutrients that your body needs in larger quantities, and that includes carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and carbohydrates, proteins and fats, all these three these three nutrients they give us calories, they They add calories to your meals and the other.
The other category is called as micronutrients that is vitamins and minerals, and vitamins and minerals really have no calories, and your body needs them in really small quantities. Now macronutrients changes the level of several satiety hormones, and you know that the satiety hormone is called as ghrelin. And I discussed this with you in Lesson number one. So, if you want to go back and revisit and listen to the lesson, lesson one on ghrelin, please do so. The other characteristic of filling foods is fiber, so, foods that are high in fiber are also very filling fiber provides bulk and helps you feel full for a longer period of time. Fiber may also slow down the emptying of the stomach and increase digestion time.
Filling foods are also high in volume. There are some foods that contain a lot of water or air and this may also help took it as well. For instance watermelon watermelon if you eat watermelon, you feel really full after some time there's a lot of water in them. When you eat popcorn popcorn also has a lot of air in it. When you eat popcorn, you feel full really quickly and popcorn is also a good source of fiber than foods that are filling are also low in energy density. This means that food is low in calories for its weight.
So there is a disproportion so it's more weight but less calories. And we'll talk a bit more about these kind of foods as we move along. foods with a low energy density are very filling and they typically contain a lot of water and fiber, but aren't low in fact. Now take a look at this graphic again and I'm gonna be showing you this picture over and over again. Because this is a really nice picture that shows you that how does 500 calories look like in your stomach. So you can see that fruits and vegetables they occupy The maximum space in your stomach and fruits and vegetables are higher in vitamins, minerals and water and even fiber and they are low in calories.
And on the other end of the spectrum you have oil which is highest in calories and occupies very little space in your stomach. And that is why when you eat a chocolate bar, you don't feel full. It's yes you feel good. This pleasure you get from eating chocolate and it makes you happy but it does not fill you up. It is not a satiating food. Let's now let's see the characteristics and the properties of high density foods versus the low density foods.
The high density foods provide a large amount of calories in a small portion of food. But like example, in this picture of a year oil has nine calories per gram, which is the highest calories per gram in comparison to carbohydrates and protein which are which gives you four calories per gram processed foods cakes cookies can Wendy's, fried chicken, fried french fries. All these are processed foods they are high in calories and they do not fill you up very, they're definitely up for a little bit of time. There's more calories but then you feel hungry really quickly. plant foods like nuts are loaded with healthy fats so a they are energy dense and therefore portion control becomes extremely important when you were to have nuts and even dried fruit dried fruit is also energy dense so portion control becomes very, very important. In Lesson number one I had given you the example of an apple versus an apple ring.
If you were to have one apple like a fresh apple, you would be probably happy with just eating one apple one full Apple a freshman. However, you will not be satisfied with eating Apple drinks. So for one full Apple it gives you about seven to eight Apple rings and you probably will not be happy or satisfied with just seven Apple rings you would want more so as a result Your latter may be eating depending upon house. If you have a sweet tooth or not, you might want to eat maybe 14, maybe 21 of the apple things really might be eating two to three apples in one go, which is a lot of calories altogether and a lot of sugar too. Now low density foods, they provide you fewer amount of calories in the sale on the food and they tend to be moist and juicy. And you can eat low energy density foods in larger portions, but you do not get as many calories for example, vegetables and fruits.
And these foods often have a high percentage of fiber which retains their natural water remove water, remove fiber, it retains water it becomes like spongy. So that's where the fiber and water connection come together. And some examples are vegetables, fruits and herbs. Now take a look at this picture. So here on the left side is a high energy density meal. And on the right side is a low energy density.
Both these meals are 1575 calories. So now if you take a look at the one on the, on the left, you can see it's got chips, it's called a doughnut, some burger fries, and I believe that the spaghetti with some sauce on it, and there's a baguette and cook. So this meal if you eat this meal, yes, you might feel you know full for a period of time, but you will feel hungry again in a matter of an hour. And the calories are 15 1575. However, if you were to eat this meal on your right side, this is a lot of food to eat in one meal. And maybe you cannot even finish this in one meal.
It's just impossible. Right so you can imagine if you were to eat this meal on the left side how, how fully will feel and you will be consuming way less calories than you would if you were to eat the sky. This meal on the left hand side. So volume does make a big difference. Now how does energy density get lowered? Let's take a look at that.
So now food composition has an effect on the energy density. In general foods with lower energy density that is fruits, vegetables and broth based soups, they are lower in energy density. And these foods tend to be higher in water content fiber and have a little fat. So when you choose foods that are high in water, you are lowering the energy density of foods and even foods that are high in fat. You can lower the energy density by adding fruits and vegetables which are water rich. As an example, if you're making chili and you add some vegetables to it, expenditure zucchini, celery and carrots.
What you're really doing is you are lowering the energy density of these tissues. So it does matter. cup when you're making chili the volume becomes huge and the energy density gets reduced the energy density of water is zero kilocalories per gram. Now take a look at this picture on your right side. So here you can see that fruits and vegetables in general have been milk and yogurt nuts in the middle, you they are generally higher in their water content. And they are nutritionist as well in with their vitamins, minerals and even protein and even fiber.
Choosing foods with a high in fiber also helps to lower the energy density of food. And you know that fiber is a type of carbohydrate, as as spoken to you in lesson two, and it cannot be fully digested by a body it has very few calories. And the energy density of fiber is normally between 1.5 2.5 kilo calories per gram of food and also by choosing foods in high fiber, you also reduce the energy density of food. Fiber increases satiety by lowering the energy density. And it slows down the rate at which foods pass through the digestive system. As a result, you don't feel hungry very quickly, and you've been following for a longer period of time.
Now, what are the effects of removing fiber from food? So we hear this a comparison of price of fresh fruit versus fruit juice. If you were to eat an orange or like a fresh orange, you probably would eat only one orange. But if you were to have a glass of juice, you probably have one whole eight ounce of glass of juice. And an eight ounce glass of juice requires at least four oranges. So the nutritional value for lots of fresh fruit is high fiber, lower calorie density.
It takes some time to eat because you've got to chew it as well. Cut it and then chew it satisfies your hunger, sugar is slowly absorbed, and as a result, there is less insulin that is required. And high fiber foods fill up your stomach and fewer calories are consumed. Remember that that graphic I've shown you on how 500 calories looks like in your stomach. So the same thing applies here as well. And on the other hand, if you look at fruit juice, there is negligible fiber.
Because you lose fiber when while juicing, there's more calories, there is no eating time because you can just gulp it down and it does not satisfy your hunger. The sugar is quickly absorbed because it's easily available in a liquid form, and you need more insulin to stabilize your blood sugar. And the more insulin the body secretes the more fat fat deposition there is. Therefore you gain more weight. And low fiber foods are more concentrated in calories and more food must be eaten to fill the stamp. Now when you're grocery shopping you might want to, you know, look at the fiber at the label.
And this is what you want look at the label for some food products. So for bread, you want to look for whole grain with two grams of fiber per slice. For cereals. Again, you want to look for whole grains with six grams of fiber per slice. For granola bars, again, whole grain and six grams of fiber per slice per bar sorry. For crackers you want to do again whole grain and two grams per serving the recommended fiber intake per day for adults and 50 and younger, you need about 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men.
Now choosing low energy density foods, take a look at the spectrum over here at the energy density spectrum. So you can see the arrow moving towards the right side. On the right hand side you will see high energy density foods that includes foods like margarine bacon, pecans, tortilla chips, pretzels, all these foods are high energy density going forward and nine. As we move along to the other side of the spectrum you have very low energy density foods. That includes foods like skim milk, vegetable soup, water lettuce, and these are these foods. They are low energy density but they are very satiating and how to feel fuller.
And in the middle you have the low energy density foods. We have both like grapes, rice, yogurt, Turkey tofu, spaghetti, these kind of foods that is in the green section here. And then you have the medium energy density foods which is like commas, sirloin steak, bread, a fried egg and chicken. So what you really want to do is you want to stick to foods which are in the medium, like most often choose very low and low. You can definitely choose the medium ones for sure, like bread tried egg chicken sometimes, right? But most of And try to stay between the very low and the low, low energy density foods.
Again, this picture is again here for you to to just do as as a as a recap of what I've been talking about that 500 calories the way it looks in your stomach. So try to stay within this range over here as much as you can, these three, so these three really correspond to these three over here the very low, low and the medium energy density. Whereas the other end of the spectrum that is oil, cheese, nuts and butter really corresponds to the high energy density of the spectrum. So try to limit your select food selections between fruits and veggies, lean meats and fish, potatoes, rice and beans and try to use less of the cheese nuts and butter or nuts. Again, make sure that you're being conscious of the portion size. When your food choices are low calorie density most often You lower or stabilize your blood sugars, and you may also lose weight.
So this is just a sample plan to see, to eat about 37 grams of fiber per day. And the handout that I had shown you in Lesson number two does the exact same one. So I'd encourage you download that and print it and put it to use. This is some examples of substitutions again, where you can substitute high energy density foods with low energy density foods. And this is also handy that I showed you in Lesson number two, I'd encourage you to download it and take a look at the substitutions. So these are some examples here.
So now let's review. To choose low to medium density foods more often. low to medium energy density foods are higher in nutrients, that is protein, fiber and water, which help you feel fuller for a longer period of time. And low to medium energy density foods occupy more space in your stomach, making you feel fuller on fewer calories.