Let's start with the first part of the course will follow with fewer calories. And this section is going to be a little technical, because I'm going to go behind the science of appetite regulation. The human body is extremely complex, and there are certain hormones that go into, you know, regulating your appetite, it is important for you to understand that so that you're able to follow through as we move along in the course. Now, there are two hormones called as leptin and ghrelin that bear significant role in appetite regulation. leptin is satiety hormone, meaning that it decreases your hunger. And ghrelin is a hunger hormone meaning which increases your appetite, appetite and satiety, they really go hand in hand and you'll see how as they move along in the course.
Now, as you can see, in this picture over here, there's two parts to it. There's one on the left side, which is before eating and the one on the right side that is after eating. Now note over here that before eating the leptin, the amount of leptin has gone up, and the amount of ghrelin has gone down. So all this is really telling your body's telling your brain that you're hungry, and that you are looking for some food to eat, so that you are satisfied so that you are satiated. And the graphic on the left on the right side really is telling you you will hear that the you know that you eaten and you're satisfied your fault. So you can see that the amount of leptin has gone down and the model has gone up.
So the leptin and ghrelin they really go hand in hand, you know, dislike a seesaw up and down all the time to control your hunger to control your appetite. Something to remember is that leptin is secreted by the adipose tissue by the fat cells, right and people who are really thin or very skinny, they have less fat on their bodies. As a result, they feel hungrier because they they amount of leptin that is being secreted, is very little, so they are pretty much hungry all the time. However, the problem really is not between ghrelin and leptin. The problem really is when people become leptin resistance, and I'm going to talking to you about leptin resistance in a little bit more detail as we move along. Now, to regulate food intake, leptin really sends a message to the hypothalamus, the hypothalamus, region of the brain, small gland, and it really basically tells us to stop eating.
So when you stop when you are when you eat to the meal, when you're happy when you're satiated, the amount of leptin goes down, that is when the you know a message has been sent to the hypothalamus to stop eating. So that's how In short, the whole process really goes on. But let's move along to leptin resistance. So leptin resistance, it plays a key role in food cravings and obesity because when people have more food cravings, they continue to eat. And when they continue to eat and this becomes a habit, it becomes a lifestyle, the brain becomes unresponsive to the effects of leptin. So, now remember leptin is a satiety hormone and when there is resistance to leptin, there is no suppression of appetite and there is no feeling of satiety, there is no feeling of satisfaction at anytime and touch people they continue to.
And as a result of all this process that is going on, we continue to eat or people continue to eat, they gain more weight, and leptin has no impact and they never feel satisfied. Now, leptin resistance can also occur due to certain hormonal issues, often resulting from excessive weight and obesity. The usual advice that we hear from researchers and experts is eat less and more More More, right? This is what we hear all the time. I read about this all the time as well. Now the reason why obesity rates are rising isn't because people are lazy.
That's really not the reason. It's really because they can't control how much they eat. There are so many temptations that we have around us. The world in which we live today has so many temptations, on cleats on sandwiches on, you know, doughnuts on burgers all the time, and that is so much food around us. And sometimes we really do blame, you know, on a lack of self control, but many times this is not true. And this can be very insulting and incorrect for certain people.
There are a lot of people who also resist snacking. Just in order to think you know what that led me is to control my snacking and I'm going to lose weight. That is not always the best approach. There are several theories that exist on what causes leptin resistance. And that includes inflammation and obesity. Obesity is also sort of inflammation where the fat cells increase.
And when the factors increase, you know, the feeling of satiation, the feeling of satisfaction is no longer there anymore leptin resistance increases, and the whole process continues all the time. So if that makes it easier for you to understand the whole process of the obesity, so there are, so let's review over here. So the thing is that leptin and ghrelin are two appetite regulating hormones that really work together in controlling your appetite and hunger. And also something very important is that there is a concept called leptin resistance, which is a very complex hormonal problem. And there are many factors that go into leptin resistance that really lead to an uncontrolled appetite and hunger